Roped Climbing On Ice And Snow
When climbing on ice or snow team members tie into a climbing rope the same as when they climb on rock. When crevasses are expected, a three-man rope team is recommended.
a. Tie-In Method. For climbing on snow and ice, the tie-in procedure is normally the same as for rock climbing; however, when moving over snow-covered glaciers, the tie-in is modified slightly. (See paragraph 10-7, Movement on Glaciers, for more information).
b. Movement. For movement on gentle or moderate slopes where there is little chance of a serious fall, all climbers move simultaneously. Normally the climbers move in single file using the steps created by the lead climber and improving them when necessary. The rope between the climbers should be fully extended and kept reasonably tight. Should any member fall, he immediately yells "FALLING." The other rope team members immediately drop into a self-arrest position. The fallen climber also applies the self-arrest procedure. By using this method, called the "team arrest," the entire team as a whole arrests the fall of one member. On steeper slopes, and when crossing snow-covered crevasses where the snow bridges appear weak, the climbers use belayed climbing techniques as in rock climbing.
c. Belaying on Snow and Ice. The principles of belaying on ice and snow are the same as on rock. Generally, the high-force falls found in rock climbing are not present on snow and ice unless the pitch being climbed is extremely steep.
(1) Boot-Ax Belay. This belay can be useful in areas where the full length of the ice ax can penetrate the snow. The holding strength of the boot-ax belay is directly related to the firmness of the snow and to the strength of the ice ax shaft. The shaft of the ax is tilted slightly uphill and jammed into the snow. The belayer places his uphill foot against the downhill side of the ax for support. A bight formed in the rope is placed over the boot and around the shaft of the ice ax. The brake is applied by wrapping the rope around the heel of the boot (Figure 10-20).
Figure 10-20. Boot-ax belay.
(2) Body Belay. The body belay can be used on snow and ice, also. The principles are the same as for belays on rock—solid anchors must be used and a well-braced position assumed. The position can be improved by digging depressions into the snow or ice for a seat and footholds. A strong platform should be constructed for the standing body belay.
(3) Munter Hitch. This belay technique is also used on snow and ice. When using the hitch off of the anchor, a two-point equalized anchor should be constructed as a minimum.
d. Fixed Ropes. The use of fixed ropes on ice is recommended for moving units through icefall areas on glaciers or other steep ice conditions. The procedures for emplacing fixed ropes on ice are basically the same as on rock with the exception that anchors need more attention, both in initial placement and in subsequent inspection, and steps may have to be cut to assist personnel.
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