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My way of crafting my survival arrows.....

I will be describing how I make long-term survival arrows, not short-term ones.I make my arrows out of willow, caittail and foxtail reed reinforced with sinew at the ends. I cut down fresh or dead shoots with flint or my knife that grow very straight and have no knots. They are about as thick as a pencil, to about 1 1/2 quarter inch thick I precut my hunting arrows to about 26 inches long, but leave my fishing arrows about twice my arms length, or about 42 inches long. My fish arrows are split with a shard of flint near the tip about 3 inches down, a small piece of wood inserted to seperate the points, tied with sinew, and the two points ahrpened and fire-heardened to get a two-pronged arrow which makes hitting a fish easier. I began making arrows by shaving ( knife or flint at right angles, as to not cut into the wood, as with bows!!!!) the bark off the shoots, and rubbing them with animal fat. I tie the arrows together in three spots tightly so that they dry staright, getting a bundle of arrows. About two weaks later, I break and discard any arrows that have cracks or checks in them, formed by the inner wood drying faster than the outer wood, causing splits. This happens with bows, but applying a thick layer of oil or fat will prevent this from happening. The ones that are good, I hand straighten the arrow over the coals, and fire-harden the arrow. Fire-hardening removes sap from the inner wood, making it harder and dryer ( don't do this with freshly cut bows, it could crack) Using a knife or edged flint, I carefully saw a notch about a quarter inch deep at the end of the shaft, and wrap under neath it with sinew, it could crack taking strikes from the bowstring when fired. ( Remember I shape the arrow if need be, don't think Im just shooting a stick). I then sharpen the tip of the arrow into a point and the fire-harden it, a very primitive way that is effective against small game. But a more durable head is reccommened for large game, and long-term purposes. Or I chop a branch down that is about 1 and half inch thick, split it into sections, and work an arrowhead shape from it and put notches on its sides. ( as seen in my pics). Then fire-harden it until it's like bamboo. This is extremely effective, in that, it provides a larger hole entry when shot into an animal, ideal for big game, but provides no cutting power. This is what I do when flint is not available to make arrowheads. It is used by tribal people all over the world to tackle large game. I once used a split shard of rotten deer femur leg to get a bone arrowhead, but thats it. Slate provides good arrowheads with slight cutting power. But when flint is available, I knapp out a very sharp arrowhead ( enough to shave your hair). Flint is found anywhere where glaciers have dug out lakes and left creeks where deposits of limestone and granite are found. Northeastern region has lots of flint. I split the tip of my arrows about 2 icnhes down, rub pine pitch onto the arrowhead, insert the arrowhead into the split, and wrapping underneath the arrowhead with wet sinew about 3 icnhes down the split. As sinew dries, it shrinks leaving an extremely tight binding. I rub molten pine pitch mixed with wood ash ( so it dries hard, or liquid from animal eyes) onto the sinew so that it protects it with a waterproof seal. My arrowheads are about 2 inches long and about 1 1/2 inches wide. I then apply fletching to the shafts to stabilize the arrow for better distance and accuracy ( fletching is not needed, an un-fletched arrow has an accurate distance of about 15-20 feet). I use any stiff tail feathers of birds, like those from Grouse or Ducks which I hunt and are plentiul near lakes ( one bird should supply me with 3 fletchings worth arrow, and when i say birds I mean large game birds, not small ones) I split the feather along its quill, shave underneath until it's flat, leaveing about half inch of bare quill on each side to tie on the flethcing ( look at my pics). The flethcings are about 4-5 icnhes long. I use sinew to tie the fletching onto the shaft evenly on both sides ( I only use two feathers, not three). I secure the sinew with pine pitch to prtoect it. The fletching lay flat on the arrow shaft. A..In areas where feathers are not available, I turn ot brother pine, for his needles for flethcing. I gather three tufts of fresh needles, twist them together, tie the large end to the shaft, bend the needles slightly so that they catch the air, and secure the other end. *(look at my pics) Im using sinew to tie them on. This method works for a couple of shots, but is effective and the maeterials are plentiful. Hair, leaves can be used for fletching also. I made a quiver out of small saplings woven with caittail leaves ( almost like a basket but long and thin) , but I will have to make another one and posts it on hear. These arrows are accurate and I use them to hunt.

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